Posted by admin on July 21, 2017
Advertising and Paradigm Fusion Abstract'The art of storytelling in nike backpacks the modern age is fundamentally important. So, how we create stories for a screen based culture is vitally important to master' (Hegarty, 2011, p.96 97).This paper explores the potential benefit of fusing aspects of creative writing with the curriculum of the BA Creative Advertising programme (BACAP) at Leeds College of Art (LCA) in order to address Sir John Hegarty's assertion. In particular it will focus on the characteristics of the 'classical paradigms' used in creative writing. A review of the theoretical literature will also provide the debate and dialogue to inform and determine the outcome.The paradigm is a model, an example, or a conceptual scheme, it is what a well structured screenplay looks like, an overview of the story line as it unfolds from beginning to end (Field, 2005, p.29).The paradigm Field refers to has its roots in Poetics (335 BC) written by Aristotle. It is structured in three parts: a beginning 'exposition'/'set up', a middle 'confrontation' and an end 'resolution', and is better known as the 'classical paradigm' for narrative structure. The narrative will include a 'protagonist' (main character) with a 'dramatic need' (to achieve something) who will experience 'conflict' (external conflict physical obstacles or / and internal conflict / psychological obstacles) driven by a 'plot' (storyline).Writing stories for screen is not a component of the BACAP. As a vocational programme, it was validated in 2005 and 2011 following consultation with the Institute of Practitioners in Advertising (IPA) and a number of leading Creative Directors throughout the UK. There was no mention of storytelling throughout either consultation.The BACAP's pedagogic paradigm is, philosophically, founded on the principles of structuralism and influenced by Gestalt psychology, with particular emphasis on visual, written and verbal language and the relationship between sender and receiver.Students studying creative advertising at LCA learn to create (in part) by using a variety of theories including: semiotics, linguistics, semantics, content analysis, gaze theory and identity theory. They also deploy a number of 'strategic' paradigms/models:'When thinking is of high importance' logical and informative model'When feeling is of high importance' self esteem model'When thinking is of low importance' habitual model'When feeling is of low importance' self satisfaction modelThese models relate directly to consumers and how acquisition decisions are made. The 'endline' acts as a trigger for recall, encapsulating the primary message of a campaign. Indeed, many endlines express a brand philosophy, reflecting a brand attitude: 'Just do it' for Nike and BT's 'It's good to talk' are excellent examples. However, it is important to remember what Field wrote: 'Just because [your] screenplay is well structured and fits the paradigm doesn't make it a good screenplay, or a good movie. The paradigm is a form, not a formula' (Field, 2005, p.28). However, creativity can evolve from structural constraints. That why, in true creativity, there are no rules or formulas.' Trott appears to suggest that to be creative one requires freedom of expression, as many would agree. However, Steve Westbrook, Assistant Professor in English at California State University, questions the 'Just Do It' ideology and argues that we might as well 'ask Umberto Eco to stop fussing with semiotics and history' (2004, p.143). Westbrook is referring to The Name of Rose, Eco's first novel written in Italian in 1980 and translated by William Weaver in 1983. The constraints and paradigms are not rules; they contain themes and questions that are integral to the creative process.McKee, in his book Story (1999),appears to echo Trott and Field in asserting that there is no prototype nor is there a formula for writing great screenplays. Nevertheless, both McKee and Field highlight the importance of using the classical paradigms, suggesting they also support Stokes' views regarding constraints. Which is to say that the paradigms and structures create the constraints.The questionnaire distributed to advertising practitioners and colleagues in advertising and related higher education was revealing: three of the World's top Creatives in Advertising agree with the deployment of Field's paradigm [set up, confrontation and resolution] saying that most ads conform, in some way, to these paradigms and structures. It is also supported by Julie Wright, the BA Advertising course Leader at Buckingham College. Mike Sheedy, programme leader of the MA in Advertising at University of Leeds, says 'to create anything that is engaging, memorable and persuasive you have to employ all manner of methods, techniques and strategies.'Cowgill suggests that 'every successful film, short or long, gives the audience an emotional experience [as a nike shoes tennis consequence] we connect with it' (Cowgill, 2006, p.7). Advertising creates the emotion, which results in attention' (2005, p.84). Du Plessis goes on to say: 'emotion not only shapes our unconscious reactions to advertising; it also feeds into, shapes and controls our conscious thought about brands, products and services' (Du Plessis, 2005, p.106). Film and advertising appear to connect with their respective audiences through emotions. From body language to syntax, from inflection to timing, we're the perfect shape and form for utilizing this amazing art form.' We explain ourselves through this medium. Who we are, what we like, do, love, hate, our ambitions, fears and yearnings are all communicated through this device (Hegarty, 2011, p.96).Storytelling and stories have a value that cannot be quantified. They are social phenomena deep rooted in human experience and storytelling naturally employs the language at one's disposal, both visually and verbally. 'And of course when employed correctly, storytelling can make things incredibly memorable, especially for brands' (Hegarty, 2011, p.96). Storytelling brings people together, develops friendships, loyalty and can be unforgettable. It is these attributes, when linked to a brand that can position it firmly in the minds of a consumer.At one point at BBH we thought we would define our creative approach as storytelling. We eventually backed away from the idea, reasoning it was too prescriptive. It wasn't that we didn't believe in it, but that defining our creative output via one means of expression was too limiting (Hegarty, 2011, p.97). Subsequently, advertising agencies created a number of 'On Demand' models, based on consumers ability to select and choose a particular brand and how they interact with it. Effectively, the consumer could now manage the advertising viewed. The need for storytelling through television and cinema, the cost of production and air time was slashed in favour of the cheaply produced 'instructional advertising' for the Internet. It's conceivable that this was influential when consultation took place in 2005 and 2011 with respect to the curriculum for the BACAP. However, in real terms, different technologies merely present different creative and communication problems.A paradigm shift and the influence of 'YouTube'The Internet and in particular 'YouTube' has become a playground for storytelling. Advertisers recognise the potential for 'viral' advertising short stories intended to be passed from one viewer to the next, as storytelling has as long as can be remembered, although stories now have the potential to go around the world in seconds. Behaviour may well have changed, the conduit may well be different and the audience beyond anything experienced. Nevertheless, the 'need' to share stories has prevailed. This has prompted the need to secure informed opinion a